Scott Ingram

Scott E Ingram

Primary Field
Assistant Professor of Archaeological Anthropology - Sabbatical Fall 2019, Colorado College, Department of Anthropology
Knowledge / Expertise
Interest/Specialty Areas Archaeology, US Southwest, human-environment interactions, collapse and sustainability, climate-human behavior

Scott Ingram

Assistant Professor


Scott Ingram is an anthropologist, archaeologist, and environmental social scientist.  His research objectives are to: 

1)   Contribute insights toward understanding contemporary problems such as human vulnerability to climate change and social and ecological sustainability by investigating long-term human and environmental interactions.
2)   Advance understanding of classic  archaeological problems (e.g., cultural transitions, regional depopulations, “collapses”) with regional-scale settlement and environmental data and innovative methods and analysis.  (Teaching website) (CV)


Contact Information

Activities & Interests

  • Southwestern U.S archaeology
  • Dendrochronology and dendroclimatology
  • Human vulnerability to natural hazards 
  • Sustainability, resilience, vulnerability
  • Historic archaeology of the Colorado and New Mexico


2017 Kintigh, Keith W. and Scott E. Ingram. Was the Drought Really Responsible? Assessing Statistical Relationships between Climate Extremes and Cultural TransitionsJournal of Archaeological Science 89:25-31.

2017 Ingram, Scott E. Climate. In The Oxford Handbook of Southwest Archaeology. Edited by Barbara J. Mills and Severin Fowles, pp. 749-766. Oxford University Press.

2017 Ingram, Scott E. Settlement Ecology in the Precontact North American Southwest. In Settlement Ecology of the Ancient Americas, edited by Lucas C. Kellett and Eric E. Jones, pp. 85-110. Routledge.

2017 Nelson, Margaret C., Ann P. Kinzig, Jette Arneborg, Richard Streeter, Scott E. Ingram. Vulnerability to Food Insecurity: Tradeoffs and Their Consequences. In The Give and Take of Sustainability: Archaeological and Anthropological Perspectives on Tradeoffs, edited by Michelle Hegmon, pp. 172-197. Cambridge.

2016 M. Nelson, S. Ingram, A. Dugmore, R. Streeter, M. Peeples, T. McGovern, M. Hegmon, J. Arneborg, K. Kintigh, O. Vesteinsson, S. Brewington, K. Spielmann, I. Simpson, C. Strawhacker, L. Comeau, A. Torvinen, C. Madsen, G. Hambrecht. Climate Challenges, Vulnerability, and Food SecurityProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (2), pp. 298-303.

2016 Ingram, Scott E. and Richard Streeter. Supplementary Materials, Climate Challenges, Vulnerability, and Food Security. Submitted to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2016 Ingram, Scott E. and Dennis Gilpin. Southwestern Archaeology beyond Archaeology: Past, Present, FutureKiva: The Journal of Southwestern Anthropology and History 81 (1-2): 120-147.

2015 Ingram, Scott E. and Robert C. Hunt, editors. Traditional Arid Lands Agriculture: Understanding the Past for the Future (book). University of Arizona Press.

2015 Ingram, Scott E. Human Vulnerability to Dry Periods, In Traditional Arid Lands Agriculture: Understanding the Past for the Future, edited by Scott E. Ingram and Robert C. Hunt, pp. 131-160. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

2014 Ingram, Scott E. Climatic, Demographic, and Environmental Influences on Central Arizona Settlement Patterns. In Alliance and Landscape on Perry Mesa in the Fourteenth Century, edited by D. Abbott and K. Spielmann. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

2014 Hunt, Robert C. and Scott E. Ingram. Plant and Animal Production Calendar for the Middle Gila River: Pima and HohokamKiva: The Journal of Southwestern Anthropology and History.

2014 Hegmon, M., J. Arneborg, A. Dugmore, G. Hambrecht, S. Ingram, K. Kintigh, T. McGovern, M. Nelson, M. Peeples, I. Simpson, K. Spielmann, R. Streeter, and O. Vésteinsson. The Human Experience of Social Change and Continuity: The Southwest and the North Atlantic in "Interesting Times" ca. 1300. In Climates of Change: The Shifting Environments of Archaeology. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Chacmool Conference, edited by S. Lacey, C. Tremain, and M. Sawyer. pp 53-67. University of Calgary.

2013 Nelson, Margaret C., Michelle Hegmon, Keith W. Kintigh, Ann P. Kinzig, Ben A. Nelson, John Marty Anderies, David A. Abbott, Katherine A. Spielmann, Scott E. Ingram, Matthew A. Peeples, Colleen A. Strawhacker, and Cathryn Meegan. "長期的脆弱性與恢復力: 美國西南部與墨西哥北部考古學研究 的實例" In 考古學與永續發展研究. Edited by 邱斯嘉 and 臧振華, pp. 93-117. 台北: 中央研究院人 文社會科學研究中心考古學研究專題中心. (Research Center for the Humanities and Social Science, Center for Archaeological Research: Taipei)

2012 Nelson, M.C., M. Hegmon, K.W. Kintigh, A.P. Kinzig, B.A. Nelson, J.M. Anderies, D.A. Abbott, K.A. Spielmann, S.E. Ingram, M.A. Peeples, S. Kulow, C.A. Strawhacker, C. Meegan. Long-Term Vulnerability and Resilience: Three Examples from Archaeological Study in the Southwestern U.S. and Northern Mexico. In Surviving Sudden Environmental Change: Answers from Archaeology, edited by Jago Cooper and Payson Sheets, pp. 197-221. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

2011 Spielmann, Katherine A., Margaret Nelson, Scott Ingram, and Matthew A. Peeples. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments. Ecology and Society 16(1): 26.

2011 Spielmann, Katherine A., Margaret Nelson, Scott Ingram, and Matthew A. Peeples. Mitigating Environmental Risk in the U.S. Southwest. In Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment, edited by Naomi F. Miller, Katherine M. Moore and Kathleen Ryan. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

2010 Ingram, Scott E., and Douglas B. Craig. Streamflow and Population Dynamics Along the Middle Gila RiverJournal of Arizona Archaeology 1:33-45.

2008 Ingram, Scott E. Streamflow and Population Change in the Lower Salt River Valley of Central Arizona, ca. A.D. 775 to 1450. American Antiquity 73:136-165.

2007 Biggs, R., C. Raudsepp-Hearne, C. Atkinson-Palombo, E. Bohensky, E. Boyd, G. Cundill, H. Fox, S. Ingram, K. Kok, S. Spehar, M. Tengö, D. Timmer, and M. Zurek, Linking Futures Across Scales: a Dialog on Multiscale ScenariosEcology and Society 12(1): 17.

2006 Abbott, David R., Scott E. Ingram, and Brent G. Kober. Hohokam Exchange and Early Classic Period Organization in Central Arizona: Focal Villages or Linear Communities? Journal of Field Archaeology 31:285-305.

Regular Classes

Course website, syllabi:

AN220 Doing Archaeology

AN320 Field Archaeology

AN100 Human Being: Anthropological Perspectives

AN308 Collapse and Sustainability of Past Societies

AN219 Archaeology of the American Southwest

AN308 Historical Archaeology

SW250 Past Climates and Human History in the Southwest



Ph.D. Anthropology, Arizona State University, 2010 

Dissertation: Human Vulnerability to Climatic Dry Periods in the Prehistoric U.S. Southwest
Committee: M. Nelson (Chair), K. Kintigh, D. Abbott, A. Kinzig, C. Redman 

M.A. Anthropology, Arizona State University, 2004
Thesis: Streamflow and Population Change in the Lower Salt River Valley of Central Arizona, ca. A.D. 775 to 1450 (published in American Antiquity)

M.A. Political Science, Oklahoma State University, 1984
Thesis: Congressional Environmental Voting: An Analysis of the Impact of Partisanship, Ideology, and Constituency Characteristics
B.S. Political Science (with Honors), Oklahoma State University, 1982

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    Geographic Areas of Expertise United States
    Geographic Areas of Expertise International
    Western Hemisphere